International Surgical Sleep Society

ISSS Position Statement on Sleep Surgery

The following surgical treatments and procedures have been shown to be effective in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing/obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in adults (and/or children) when applied to selected patients based on their anatomy, physiology, body mass index and neck size, prior therapy and co-morbidities.  Patient should have undergone an appropriate evaluation(s) prior to treatment which may include polysomnography, home sleep testing, awake or drug induced sleep endoscopy, and possible cephalometric or other radiographic evaluations.

The list of effective surgical procedures (and their synonyms, variations and modifications)are listed below including selected publications supporting the procedures efficacy for treatment. References may focus on a single procedure or a combination of procedures. When listed as a combination of procedures, the reference may be listed under multiple procedure headings.

  1. Tonsillectomy
  2. Adenoidectomy
  3. Septoplasty
  4. Turbinate reduction (submucous resection of the turbinates, partial turbinectomy, radiofrequency ablation of the turbinates)
  5. Nasal valve repair
  6. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) [ Z-palatoplasty (ZPP), uvulopalatal flap (UPF), lateral pharyngoplasty, expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty]
  7. Transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty
  8. Hyoid advancement/suspension (either to mandible or thyroid cartilage)
  9. Genioglossus advancement/suspension
  10. Tongue suspension
  11. Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA)
  12. Tongue Radiofrequency ablation
  13. Midline glossectomy/lingualplasty
  14. Lingual tonsillectomy
  15. Base of tongue reduction
  16. Epiglottoplasty (partial epiglottectomy)
  17. Cranial nerve (hypoglossal nerve) stimulation
  18. Tracheotomy

 

1-2.  Tonsillectomy, Adenoidectomy

Randerath WJ, Verbraecken J, Andreas S, Bettega G, Boudewyns A, Hamans E, Jalbert F, Paoli JR, Sanner B, Smith I, Stuck BA, Lacassagne L, Marklund M, Maurer JT, Pepin JL, Valipour A, Verse T, Fietze I, the European Respiratory Society task force on non-CPAP therapies in sleep apnoea. Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 1000–1028.

Bar A, Tarasiuk A, Segev Y, et al. The effect of adenotonsillectomy on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and growth in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Pediatr 1999; 135: 76–80.

Ericsson E, Hultcrantz E. Tonsil surgery in youths: good results with a less invasive method. Laryngoscope 2007; 117: 654–661.

Friedman M, LoSavio P, Ibrahim H, et al. Radiofrequency tonsil reduction: safety, morbidity, and efficacy. Laryngoscope 2003; 113: 882–887.

Friedman M, Tanyeri H, La Rosa M, et al. Clinical predictors of obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope 1999; 109: 1901–1907.

Gozal D, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Serpero LD, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial function in school-aged nonobese children: effect of adenotonsillectomy. Circulation 2007; 116:

2307–2314.

Martinho FL, Zonato AI, Bittencourt LR, et al. Obese obstructive sleep apnea patients with tonsil hypertrophy submitted to tonsillectomy. Braz J Med Biol Res 2006; 39: 1137–1142.

Nakata S, Miyazaki S, Ohki M, et al. Reduced nasal resistance after simple tonsillectomy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Rhinol 2007; 21: 192–195.

Nelson LM. Radiofrequency treatment for obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000; 126: 736–740.

Nelson LM. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency tonsil reduction: extended follow-up. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 125: 456–461.

Schechter MS. Technical report: diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics 2002; 109: e69.

Stradling JR, Thomas G, Warley AR, et al. Effect of adenotonsillectomy on nocturnal hypoxaemia, sleep disturbance, and symptoms in snoring children. Lancet 1990; 335: 249–253.

Tauman R, Gulliver TE, Krishna J, et al. Persistence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children after adenotonsillectomy. J Pediatr 2006; 149: 803–808.

 

3-5.  Septoplasty, Turbinate reduction (submucous resection of the turbinates, partial turbinectomy, radiofrequency ablation of the turbinates), Nasal valve repair, Nasal Dilators

Balcerzak J, Niemczyk K, Arcimowicz M, Gotlib T. The role of functional nasal surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otolarynologia Polska.  2007;61:80-4.

Bican A. Kahraman A, Bora I, Kahveci R, Hakyemez B. What is the efficacy of nasal surgery in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1801-6.

Biermann E. Nasal CPAP therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Does functional rhinosurgery improve compliance? Somnologie. 2001;5:59-64

Camacho M, Riaz M, Capasso R, et al.  The effect of nasal surgery on continuous positive airway pressure device use and therapeutic treatment pressures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep 2015; 38(2):279-86.)

Dayal VS et al. Nasal surgery in the management of sleep apnea.Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1985;94:550-554.

Dorn M. Pirsig W. Verse T. Postoperative management following rhinosurgery interventions in severe obstructive sleep apnea. HNO. 2001;49:642-5.

Esteller E, Matino E, Segarra F, Sanz JJ, Adema JM, Estivill E. Adverse effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy and its relation to the nose. Acta Otorrinolarynologica Espanola.  2004;55:17-22.

Fairbanks DNF. Effect of nasal surgery on snoring.  Southern Med J 1985;78(3):268-70

Friedman M, Tanyeri H, Lim JW et al. Effect of improved nasal breathing on obstructive sleep apnea.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;122:71-4.

Heimer D, Scharf SM, Lieberman A et al. Sleep apnea syndrome treated by repair of deviated nasal septum. Chest 1983;84:184-5.

Hollandt JH, Kuhl S. Siegert R. Therapy with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). I:long-term acceptance of nasal CPAP. Laryngorhinootologie. 1997;76:550-3.

Ishii L, Roxbury C, Godoy A, Ishman S, Ishii M.  Does nasal surgery improve OSA in patients with nasal obstruction and OSA? A Meta-analysis. Otol Head Neck Surgery, 2015;Sep;153(3):326-33)

Moxness MH, Nordgard S. An observational cohort study of the effects of septoplasty with or without inferior turbinate reduction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord. 2014 Oct 21;14:11

Nakata S, Noda A, Yagi H, et al. Nasal resistance for determinant factor of nasal surgery in CPAP failure patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Rhinology 2005;43(4):296-9

Nowak C, Bourgin P, Portier F, Genty E, Escourrou P, Bobin S. Nasal obstruction and compliance to nasal positive airway pressure. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 2003;120:161-6.

Park CY, Hong JH, Lee JH, et al. Clinical effect of surgical correction for nasal pathology on the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PloS One.  2014;9:e98765

Pervernagie D, Hamans E, Van Cauwenberge P, Pauwels R. The effect of external dilation on snoring in patients with chronic rhinitis: a randomised controlled trial using Breathe Right nasal strips. European Respiratory Journal 2000; 15: 996-1000.

Pniak T. Matousek P, Strympl P, Novak V, Kominek P. Obstructive sleep apnoea and CPAP – is it reasonable to solve nasal patency? Cesk Slov Neurol N. 2012;75:222-6.

Powell NB,  Zanato AI, Weaver EM, et al. Radiofrequency treatment of turbinate hypertrophy in subjects using continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical pilot trial. Laryngoscope 2001;111(10):1783-90

Poirier J, George C, Rotenberg B. The effect of nasal surgery on nasal continuous positive airway pressure compliance. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:317-9.

Ripberger R. Pirsig W. Nasal positive pressure ventilation (nCPAP) in therapy of obstructive sleep apnea: acceptance by 50 patients. Laryngorhinootologie.  1994;73:581-5.

Schuaib SW, Undavia S, Lin J, Johnson CM Jr, Stupak HD. Can functional septorhinoplasty independently treat obstructive sleep apnea?  Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Jun;135(6):1554-65. 

Series F, St Pierre S, Carrier G. Effects of surgical correction of nasal obstruction in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;146:1261-5.

Sufioglue M. Ozmen OA, Kasapoblu F, et al. The efficacy of nasal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a prospective clinical study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2112;269:487-94.

Zonato AI, Bittencourt LR, Martinho FL, Gregorio LC, Tufik S.  Upper airway surgery: the effect on nasal continuous positive airway pressure titration on obstructive sleep apnea patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2006;263(5):481-6.

 

6.  Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), Z-palatoplasty (ZPP), uvulopalatal flap (UPF), lateral pharyngoplasty, expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty]

Cahali MB. Lateral pharyngoplasty: a new treatment for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.  Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1961-1968.

Cahali MD, Formigoni GG, Gebrim EM, et al.   Lateral pharyngoplasty versus uvulopalatopharyngoplasty: a clinical, polysomnographic and computed tomography measurement comparison.  Sleep 2004;27:942-50.

Cillo JE Jr, Dalton PS, Dattillo DJ. Combined Elliptical window genioglossus advancement, hyoid bone suspension, and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty decrease apnea hypopnea index and subjective daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013, S0278-2391 (13)00532-6.10.1016/j.joms.2013.06.001 (Epub ahead of print) PMID:23932115

Friedman M, Ibrahim H, Bass L.  Clinical staging for sleep-disordered breathing.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.  2002;127:13-21.

Friedman M, Ibrahim H, Lowenthal S, et al.  Uvulopalatoplasty (UP2): a modified technique for selected patients.  Laryngoscope 2004;114:441-9.

Friedman M, Ibrahim HZ, Vidvasagaar R, et al.  Z-palatoplasty (ZPP):a technique for patients without tonsils. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;131:89-100.

Friedman M, Duggal P, Joseph NJ.  Revision uvulopalatoplasty by Z-palatoplasty.  Otolarygol Head Neck Surg.  2007;136:638-643.

Friedman M, Lin HC, Gurpinar B, et al.  Minimally invasive single-stage multilevel treatment for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.  Laryngoscope 2007;117:1849-1863.

Friedman M, Ibrahim H, Lee G, et al.  Combined uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and radiofrequency tongue base reduction for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:611-621.

Fujita S, Conway W, Zorick F, et al.  Surgical correction of anatomic abnormalities of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.  Orolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1981;89:923-934.

Fujita S, Conway WA, Zorick FJ, et al.  Evaluation of the effectiveness of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.  Laryngoscope 1985;95:70-74.

Hsu PP, Brett RH: Multiple level pharyngeal surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea. Singapore Med J 2001 Apr;42(4):160-4.

Isono S, Shimada A, Tanoka A, et al.  Effects of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on collapsibility of the retropalatal airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.  Laryngoscope 2003;113(2):362-7.

Jacobowitz O. Palatal and tongue base surgery for surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective study. Otolarynol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135(2):258-264.

Langin T, Pepin JL, Pendlebury S, et al.  Upper airway changes in snorers  and mild sleep apnea sufferers after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP).  Chest 1998; 113:1595-1603.

Lee RN, Givens CD, Wilson J, Robins RB: Staged surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A review of 35 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 57:382-385, 1999.

Li HY, Lee LA.  Relocation pharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea.  Laryngoscope 2009;119:2472-2477.

Li HY, Lee LA, Fang TJ, et al.  Evaluation of velopharyngeal function oafter relocation pharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope 2010;120:1069-1073.

Li HY, Li KK, Chen NH, et al.  Modified uvulopalataopharyngoplasty: the extended uvulopalatal flap. Am J Otolaryngol. 2003;24:311-316.

Lin HC, Friedman M, Chang HW, et al.  The efficacy of multilevel surgery of the upper airway in adults with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.  Laryngoscope 2008;118:902-908.

McGuirt WF Jr, Johnson JT, Sanders MH.  Previous tonsillectomy as prognostic indicator for success of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Laryngoscope 1995;105:1253-5.

Omur M, Ozturan D, Elez F, et al. Tongue base suspension combined with UPPP in severe OSA patients. Otol Head Neck Surg, 133(2):218-223; 2005.

Pang KP, Woodson BT.  Expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty: a new technique for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.  Otolaryngol Head neck Surg.  2007;137:110-114.

Powell N, Riley R, Guillemenault C, et al.  A reversible uvulopalatal flap for snoring and sleep apnea syndrome.  Sleep 1996;19:593-599.

Richard W. Kox D, den Herder C, van Tinteren H, de Vries N. One stage multilevel surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, hyoid suspension, radiofrequent ablation of the tongue base with/without genioglossus advancement), in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol.2007;264(4):439-44.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a review pf 306 consecutively treated surgical patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 108: 117-125, 1993.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a surgical protocol for dynamic upper airway reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993 Jul;51(7):742-7.

Rintala A, Nordstrom R, Partinen M, Ranta R, Sjoblad A: Cephalometric analysis of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1991;87(1):177-82.

Robinson S, Chia M, Carney AS, et al.  Upper airway reconstructive surgery long-term quality-of-life outcomes compared with CPAP for adult obstructive sleep apnea.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009;141:257-263.

Rotenberg BW, Theiault J, Gotesman S. Redefining the timing of surgery for obstructive sleep apnea in anatomically favorable patients.  Laryngoscope 2014; 124: 51-60

Schwartz AR, Schiebert N, Rothman W, et al.  Effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on airway collapsibility in obstructive sleep apnea.  Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:522-32.

Senior BA, Rosenthal L, Lumley A, et al.  Efficacy of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty in unselected patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.  2000;123:179-182.

Sher A, Schechtman K, Piccirillo J:  The efficacy of surgical modifications of the upper airway in adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  Sleep 19(2):156-177, 1996.

Utley DS, Shin EJ, Clerk A A, Terris DJ: A cost-effective and rational surgical approach to patients with snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Laryngoscope 107:726-734, 1997.

Vilaseca I, Morelló A, Montserrat JM, Santamaria J, Iranzo A. Usefulness of uvulopalatopharygoplasty with genioglossus and hyoid advancement in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otol H&N Surg 2002;128:435-40.

Vicente, E, Marin JM, Carrizo S, Naya MJ. Tongue base suspension in conjunction with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea:  Long-term follow-up results. Laryngoscope, 116:1223-1227; 2006.

Woodson BT.  Acute effects of palatopharyngoplasty on airway collapsibility.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.  1999;121(1):82-6.

Yi HL, Sun SQ, Chen B. Zhang YJ, Guan J, Wu HM, Meng LL, Yin SK. Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus genioglossus advancement and hyoid suspension for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Otolaryng Head Neck Surg. 2011;144(3):469-73.

Yin SK, Yi HL, Lu WU, Guan J, Wu HM, Cao ZY.  Genioglossus advancement and hyoid suspension plus uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe OSAHS. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136(4):626-31

 

7.  Transpalatal advancement

Mackay SG, Jefferson N, Marshall NS.  Beyond uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnoea: single surgeon case series of contemporary airway reconstruction. J Laryngol Otol. 2013 Dec;127(12):1184-9. doi: 10.1017/S0022215113003009. Epub 2013 Dec 13.

Shine NP, Lewis RH. Transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: results and analysis of failures. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 May;135(5):434-8. doi: 10.1001/archoto.2009.45.

Shine NP1, Lewis RH.  The “Propeller” incision for transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty: a new approach to reduce post-operative oronasal fistulae. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2008 Sep;35(3):397-400. Epub 2007 Oct 29

Woodson BT, Robinson S, Lim HJ. Transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty outcomes compared with uvulopalatopharygoplasty. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Aug;133(2):211-7.

Woodson BT. Retropalatal airway characteristics in uvulopalatopharyngoplasty compared with transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty. Laryngoscope. 1997 Jun;107(6):735-40.

Woodson BT. Changes in airway characteristics after transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty compared to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). Sleep. 1996 Dec;19(10 Suppl):S291-3.

Woodson BT, Toohill RJ. Transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 1993 Mar;103(3):269-76.

Ye JY, Yi B, Liu JM, Yin GP, Wang XY, Wang LM, Shi XL.  Combination of transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty and  uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007 Feb;42(2):85-9.

 

8.  Hyoid advancement/suspension (either to mandible or thyroid cartilage)

Baisch A, Maurer JT, Hörmann K.  The effect of hyoid suspension in a multilevel surgery concept for obstructive sleep apnea.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134(5):856-61.

Bettega G. Pepin JL, Veale D, Deschaux C, Raphael B, Levy P. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: fifty-one consecutive patients treated by maxillofacial surgery. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(pt 1):641-649.

Bowden MT, Kezirian EJ, Utley D, Goode RL. Outcomes of Hyoid Suspension for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131(5):440-5.

Cillo JE Jr, Dalton PS, Dattillo DJ. Combined Elliptical window genioglossus advancement, hyoid bone suspension, and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty decrease apnea hypopnea index and subjective daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013, S0278-2391 (13)00532-6.10.1016/j.joms.2013.06.001 (Epub ahead of print) PMID:23932115

Dattilo, DJ, Kolodychak MT: The use of the Mitek mini anchor system in the hyoid suspension technique for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J. Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000; 58(8):919-20.

Datillo DJ, Aynechi M.  Modification of the Anterior Mandubular Osteotomy for Genioglossus Advancment with Hyoid Suspension for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(9):1876-9

Den Herder C, van Tenteren H, de Vries N. Hyoidthyroidpexia: a surgical treatment for sleep apnea syndrome. Laryngoscope 2005;115:740-745.

Foltan R, Hoffmannova J, Pretl M, Donev F, VLK M.  Genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy in treating obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome – A follow-up study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2007;35(4-5):246-51

Gillespie MB, Ayers CM, Nguyen SA, Abidin MR.  Outcomes of hyoid myotomy and suspension using a mandibular screw suspension system. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;144(2):225-9.

Hörmann K, Baisch A.  The hyoid suspension.  Laryngoscope. 2004;114(9):1677-9.

Hsu PP, Brett RH: Multiple level pharyngeal surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea. Singapore Med J 2001;42(4):160-4.

Jacobowitz O. Palatal and tongue base surgery for surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective study. Otolarynol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135(2):258-264.

Karataylı-Özgürsoy S, Demireller A.  Hyoid suspension surgery with UPPP for the treatment of hypopharyngeal airway obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea. Ear Nose Throat J. 2012;91(8):358-64.

Kezirian EJ, Goldberg AN. Hypopharyngeal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea: an evidence-based medicine review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(2):206-13

Krespi, YP. Tongue suspension and hyoid suspension/myotomy for obstructive sleep apnea. Op Tech in Otol Head Neck Surg, June, 2002

Lee RN, Givens CD, Wilson J, Robins RB: Staged surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A review of 35 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 57:382-385, 1999.

Neruntarat C. Genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy under local anesthesia. Otol H&N Surg 2003;129(1);85-91.

Neruntarat C. Hyoid myotomy with suspension under local anesthesia for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2003;260:286-90.

Neruntarat C.  Genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy: short-term and long-term results. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117(6):482-6

Ramirez SG, Loube DI. Inferior sagittal osteotomy with hyoid bone suspension for obese patients with sleep apnea. Arch Otol H&N Surg 1996;122:953-7.

Richard W. Kox D, den Herder C, van Tinteren H, de Vries N. One stage multilevel surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, hyoid suspension, radiofrequent ablation of the tongue base with/without genioglossus advancement) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol.2007;264(4):439-44.

Riley RW, Guilleminault C, Powell N, Derman S. Mandibular osteotomy and hyoid bone advancement for obstructive sleep apnea: a case report. Sleep 1984; 7(1): 79-82.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C. Inferior sagittal osteotomy of the mandible with hyoid myotomy-suspension: A new procedure for obstructive sleep apnea. Otol H&N Surg 1986;94(5):589-93.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C, Nino-Murcia G. Maxillary, mandibular, and hyoid advancement: an alternative to tracheostomy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;94(5):584-8.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Inferior mandibular osteotomy and hyoid myotomy suspension for obstructive sleep apnea: a review of 55 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1989;47(2):159-64.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Maxillofacial surgery and obstructive sleep apnea: a review of 80 patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989 Sep;101(3):353-61.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Maxillary, mandibular, and hyoid advancement for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a review of 40 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990 Jan;48(1):20-6.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a review of 306 consecutively treated surgical patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 108: 117-125, 1993.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a surgical protocol for dynamic upper airway reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993 Jul;51(7):742-7.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C. Obstructive sleep apnea and they hyoid: A revised surgical procedure. Otol H&N Surg 1994;111:717-21.

Rintala A, Nordstrom R, Partinen M, Ranta R, Sjoblad A: Cephalometric analysis of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1991;87(1):177-82.

Sandler NA, Braun TW.  Hyoid myotomy and suspension for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;55(6):656.

Schmitz JP, Bitonti DA, Lemke RR.: Hyoid myotomy and suspension for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Oral Maxillfac Surg 1996;54:1339-1345.

Sher A, Schechtman K, Piccirillo J:  The efficacy of surgical modifications of the upper airway in adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  Sleep 1996;19(2):156-177.

Stuck BA, Neff W, Hörmann K. Verse T, Bran G, Baisch A, Düber C, Maurer JT. Anatomic changes after hyoid suspension for obstructive sleep apnea: An MRI study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005;133:397-402.

Tschopp KP.  Modification of the Hörmann technique of hyoid suspension in obstructive sleep apnoea.  J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121(5):491-3

Utley DS, Shin EJ, Clerk A A, Terris DJ: A cost-effective and rational surgical approach to patients with snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Laryngoscope 107:726-734, 1997.

Van de Graaff WB, Gottfried SB, Mitra J, Lunteren EV, Cherniack NS, Strohl, KP. Respiratory function of hyoid muscles and hyoid arch.  J Appl Physiol 1984;44:197-204.

Vilaseca I, Morelló A, Montserrat JM, Santamaria J, Iranzo A. Usefulness of uvulopalatopharygoplasty with genioglossus and hyoid advancement in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otol H&N Surg 2002;128:435-40.

Yi HL, Sun SQ, Chen B. Zhang YJ, Guan J, Wu HM, Meng LL, Yin SK. Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus genioglossus advancement and hyoid suspension for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Otolaryng Head Neck Surg. 2011;144(3):469-73.

Yin SK, Yi HL, Lu WU, Guan J, Wu HM, Cao ZY.  Genioglossus advancement and hyoid suspension plus uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe OSAHS. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136(4):626-31

 

9.  Genioglossus advancement/suspension

Bettega G. Pepin JL, Veale D, Deschaux C, Raphael B, Levy P. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: fifty-one consecutive patients treated by maxillofacial surgery. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(pt 1):641-649.

Cillo JE Jr, Dalton PS, Dattillo DJ. Combined Elliptical window genioglossus advancement, hyoid bone suspension, and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty decrease apnea hypopnea index and subjective daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013, S0278-2391 (13)00532-6.10.1016/j.joms.2013.06.001 (Epub ahead of print) PMID:23932115

Datillo DJ, Aynechi M.  Modification of the Anterior Mandubular Osteotomy for Genioglossus Advancment with Hyoid Suspension for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(9):1876-9

Foltan R, Hoffmannova J, Pretl M, Donev F, VLK M.  Genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy in treating obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome – A follow-up study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2007;35(4-5):246-51

Hsu PP, Brett RH: Multiple level pharyngeal surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea. Singapore Med J 2001 Apr;42(4):160-4.

Kezirian EJ, Goldberg AN. Hypopharyngeal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea: an evidence-based medicine review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(2):206-13

Lee RN, Givens CD, Wilson J, Robins RB: Staged surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A review of 35 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 57:382-385, 1999.

Neruntarat C. Genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy under local anesthesia. Otol H&N Surg 2003;129(1);85-91.

Neruntarat C.  Genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy: short-term and long-term results. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117(6):482-6

Richard W. Kox D, den Herder C, van Tinteren H, de Vries N. One stage multilevel surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, hyoid suspension, radiofrequent ablation of the tongue base with/without genioglossus advancement), in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol.2007;264(4):439-44.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C, Nino-Murcia G. Maxillary, mandibular, and hyoid advancement: an alternative to tracheostomy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;94(5):584-8.

Riley R, Guilleminault C, Powell N, Derman S. Mandibular osteotomy and hyoid bone advancement for obstructive sleep apnea: a case report. Sleep 1984; 7(1): 79-82

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Inferior mandibular osteotomy and hyoid myotomy suspension for obstructive sleep apnea: a review of 55 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1989;47(2):159-64.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Maxillofacial surgery and obstructive sleep apnea: a review of 80 patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989 Sep;101(3):353-61.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a review pf 306 consecutively treated surgical patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 108: 117-125, 1993.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a surgical protocol for dynamic upper airway reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993 Jul;51(7):742-7.

Rintala A, Nordstrom R, Partinen M, Ranta R, Sjoblad A: Cephalometric analysis of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1991;87(1):177-82.

Sher A, Schechtman K, Piccirillo J:  The efficacy of surgical modifications of the upper airway in adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  Sleep 19(2):156-177, 1996.

Utley DS, Shin EJ, Clerk A A, Terris DJ: A cost-effective and rational surgical approach to patients with snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Laryngoscope 107:726-734, 1997.

Vilaseca I, Morelló A, Montserrat JM, Santamaria J, Iranzo A. Usefulness of uvulopalatopharygoplasty with genioglossus and hyoid advancement in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;128:435-40.

Yi HL, Sun SQ, Chen B. Zhang YJ, Guan J, Wu HM, Meng LL, Yin SK. Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus genioglossus advancement and hyoid suspension for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Otolaryng Head Neck Surg. 2011;144(3):469-73.

Yin SK, Yi HL, Lu WU, Guan J, Wu HM, Cao ZY.  Genioglossus advancement and hyoid suspension plus uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe OSAHS. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136(4):626-31.

 

10.  Tongue suspension

Berg EE, Bunge F, Delgaudio JM.  Multilevel treatment of moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea with bone-anchored pharyngeal suspension sutures. Ear Nose Throat J. 2013;92(8):E1-5.

Coleman J, Bick PA. Suspension sutures for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring. Otol Clinics of North America, 1999;32(2):277-285.

DeRowe A, Gunther E, Fibbi A, et al. Tongue base suspension with a soft tissue-to-bone anchor for obstructive sleep apnea:preliminary clinical results of a new minimally invasive technique. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;122:100-3.

Derowe A, Woodson BT. A minimally invasive technique for tongue base stabilization in obstructive sleep apnea.  Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 2000;11(1):41-45.

Faye-Lund H, Djupesland G, Lyberg T. Glossopexia-evaluation of a new surgical method for treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1992;492:46-49

Fibbi A, Ameli F, Brocchetti F, et al. Tongue base suspension and radiofrequency volume reduction: a comparison between 2 techniques for the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing. Am J Otolaryngol. 2009;30(6):401-406

Friedman M. Sleep apnea and snoring: surgical and non-surgical therapy. Woodson BT. A minimally invasive technique for tongue base stabilization. Saunders, Elsevier, 2009: 258-64.

Hamans E, Boudewyns A, Stuck B, Baisch A, Willemen M, Verbraecken J, Van de Heyning P. Adjustable tongue advancement for obstructive sleep apnea: a pilot study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2008;117:815-823.

Handler E, Hamans E, Goldberg AN, Mickelson S.Tongue suspension: an evidence-based review and comparison to hypopharyngeal surgery for OSA. Laryngoscope 2014;124:329-36

Kezirian EJ, Goldberg AN. Hypopharyngeal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea: an evidence-based medicine review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(2):206-13

Kuhnel TS, Schurr C, Wagner B, Geisler P. Morphological changes of the posterior airway space after tongue base suspension. Laryngoscope, 2005;115(3):475-80. 

Krespi, YP. Tongue suspension and hyoid suspension/myotomy for obstructive sleep apnea. Op Tech in Otol Head Neck Surg, June, 2002

Miller, FR, Watson D, Malis D. Role of the tongue base suspension suture with the Repose System bone screw in the multilevel surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea. Otol Head Neck Surg, 2002;126(4):392-398.

Omur M, Ozturan D, Elez F, Unver C, Derman S. Tongue base suspension combined with UPPP in severe OSA patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005;133:218-23

Pavelec V, Hamans E, Stuck BA. A study of the new generation of the advance system tongue implants:Three- and six-month effects of tongue to mandible tethering for obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope 2011;121:2487-2493

Shott SR. Pediatric sleep disordered breathing-macroglossia.  Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology, 2005;16:251-256.

Terris, D., Kunda, L., Minimally invasive tongue base surgery for obstructive sleep apnea. J Laryngol Otol, September, 2002

Thomas AJ, Chavoya M, Terris, DJ. Preliminary findings from a prospective, randomized trial of two tongue base surgeries for sleep-disordered breathing.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2003;129(5):539-546.

Vicente, E, Marin JM, Carrizo S, Naya MJ. Tongue base suspension in conjunction with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea:  Long-term follow-up results. Laryngoscope, 1006;116:1223-1227.

Woodson BT, DeRowe A, Hawke M, et al. Pharyngeal suspension suture with Repose bone screw for obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;122:395-401

Woodson BT, Steward DL, Mickelson S, et al. Multicenter study of a novel adjustable tongue-advancement device for obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 2010;143:585-590.

 

11.  Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA)

Bettega G. Pepin JL, Veale D, Deschaux C, Raphael B, Levy P. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: fifty-one consecutive patients treated by maxillofacial surgery. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(pt 1):641-649.

Blumen MB, Buchet I, Meulien P, Hausser Hauw C, Neveu H, Chabolle F. Complications/adverse effects of maxillomandibular advancement for the treatment of OSA in regard to outcome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Nov;141(5):591-7. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2009.08.025.

Boyd SB.  Management of obstructive sleep apnea by maxillomandibular advancement.  Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am.  2009; 21:447-457.

Bruno Carlo B, Mauro P, Silvia B, et al.  Modified genioplasty and bimaxillary advancement for treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  J Oral Maxillofac Surrg.  2008;66:1971-1974.

Camacho M, Teixeira J, Abdullatif J, Acevedo JL, Certal V, Capasso R, Powell NB. Maxillomandibular advancement and tracheostomy for morbidly obese obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Apr;152(4):619-30. doi: 10.1177/0194599814568284. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

Conradt R, Hochban W, Heitmann J, Brandenburg U, Cassel W, Penzel T, Peter JH. Sleep fragmentation and daytime vigilance in patients with OSA treated by surgical maxillomandibular advancement compared to CPAP therapy. J Sleep Res. 1998 Sep;7(3):217-23.

Conradt R, Hochban W, Brandenburg U, Heitmann J, Peter JH.  Long-term follow-up after surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea by maxillomandibularadvancement. Eur Respir J. 1997 Jan;10(1):123-8.

de Ruiter MH, Apperloo RC, de Lange J. Maxillomandibular advancement surgery as an optional therapy for patiens with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2013 Sep;120(9):470-4.

Goh YH, Lim KA. Modified maxillomandibular advancement for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a preliminary report. Laryngoscope. 2003 Sep;113(9):1577-82.

Hochban W, Brandenburg U, Peter JH.  Surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea by maxillomandibular advancement.  Sleep 2994;17:624-629.

Hochban W, Conradt R, Brandenburg U, et al.  Surgical maxillofacial treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.  Plast Reconstr Surg 1997;99:619-626.

Holty JE, Guilleminault C. Maxillomandibular advancement for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2010 Oct;14(5):287-97. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.11.003. Epub 2010 Mar 2.

Kezirian EJ, Goldberg AN. Hypopharyngeal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea: an evidence-based medicine review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(2):206-13

Knudsen TB, Laulund AS, Ingerslev J, Homøe P, Pinholt EM. Improved apnea-hypopnea index and lowest oxygen saturation after maxillomandibular advancement with or without counterclockwise rotation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Apr;73(4):719-26. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Lee RN, Givens CD, Wilson J, Robins RB: Staged surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A review of 35 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 57:382-385, 1999.

Li KK, Riley RW, Powell NB, et al.  Postoperative airway findings after maxillomandibular advancement for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  Laryngoscope. 2000;110:325-327.

Li KK, Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C.  Maxillomandibular advancement for persistent obstructive sleep apnea after phase I surgery in patients without maxillomandibular deficiency. Laryngoscope. 2000 Oct;110(10 Pt 1):1684-8.

Li KK, Powell NB, Riley RW, et al.  Morbidly obese patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea: Is airway reconstructive surgery a viable treatment option? Laryngoscope 2000;110:982-987.

Li KK, Powell NB, Riley RW, et al.  Long-term results of maxillomandibular advancement surgery.  Sleep Breath 2000;4:137-140.

Liao YF, Chiu YT, Lin CH, Chen YA, Chen NH, Chen YR. Modified maxillomandibular advancement for obstructive sleep apnoea: towards a better outcome for Asians. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Feb;44(2):189-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2014.09.013. Epub 2014 Oct 11.

Lye KW, Waite PD, Meara D, et al.  Quality of life evaluation of maxillomandibular advancement surgery for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.   J. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:968-972.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C, Nino-Murcia G. Maxillary, mandibular, and hyoid advancement: an alternative to tracheostomy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;94(5):584-8.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Maxillary, mandibular, and hyoid advancement for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a review of 40 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990 Jan;48(1):20-6.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a review pf 306 consecutively treated surgical patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 108: 117-125, 1993.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C: Maxillofacial surgery and obstructive sleep apnea: a review of 80 patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989 Sep;101(3):353-61.

Ronchi P, Novelli G, Colombo L, et al.  Effectiveness of maxillomandibular advancement in obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without skeletal anomalies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39:541-547.

Sher A, Schechtman K, Piccirillo J:  The efficacy of surgical modifications of the upper airway in adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  Sleep 19(2):156-177, 1996.

Smatt Y, Ferri J.  Retrospective study of 18 patients treated by maxillomandibular advancement with adjunctive procedures for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Craniofac Surg 2005;16:770-777.

Varghese R, Adams NG, Slocumb NL, Viozzi CF, Ramar K, Olson EJ. Maxillomandibular advancement in the management of obstructive sleep apnea. Int J Otolaryngol. 2012;2012:373025. doi: 10.1155/2012/373025. Epub 2012 Jan 29.

Wagner I, Coiffier T, Sequert C, et al.  Surgical treatment of severe sleep apnea syndrome by maxillomandibular advancing or mental transposition.  Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 2000;117:137-146.

Waite PD, Wooten V, Lachner J, et al. Maxillomandibular advancement surgery in 23 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989;47:1256-61.

 

12.  Tongue Radiofrequency Ablation

Friedman M, Ibrahim H, Lee G, et al.  Combined uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and radiofrequency tongue base reduction for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:611-621.

Hohenhorst W, Stoohs R, Knaack L, Gruenwald S, Koester U, Lamprecht J. Radiofrequency of the tongue by ventral approach. Otol H&N Surg 2003;129(2):180

Kezirian EJ, Goldberg AN. Hypopharyngeal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea: an evidence-based medicine review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(2):206-13

Li KK, Powell NB, Riley RW, Guilleminault C. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency tongue base reduction for sleep-disordered breathing: Long-term outcomes.  Otol H&N Surg 2002;127(3):230-4.

Pazos G, Mair EA. Complications of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing. Otol H&N Surg 2001;125(5):462-6.

Powell NB, Riley RW, Guilleminault C. Radiofrequency tongue base reduction in sleep-disordered breathing: A pilot study. Otol H&N Surg 1999;120(5):656-64.

Richard W. Kox D, den Herder C, van Tinteren H, de Vries N. One stage multilevel surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, hyoid suspension, radiofrequent ablation of the tongue base with/without genioglossus advancement), in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol.2007;264(4):439-44.

Riley RW, Powell NB, Li KK, Weaver EM, Guilleminault C.  An adjunctive method of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction of the tongue for OSAS.  Otol H&N Surg 2003;129(1):37-42.

Robinson S, Lewis R, Norton A, McPeake S. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency submucosal tongue-base excision for sleep apnoea: a preliminary report. Clin Otolaryngol 2003;28(4):341-5.

Steward DL, Weaver EM, Woodson BT, A Comparison of temperature-controlled radiofrequency treatment schemes for sleep apnea. Otol H&N Surg 2003;129(2):201.

Stuck BA, Maurer JT, Hörmann K. Tongue Base Reduction with Radiofrequency Tissue Ablation: Preliminary Results after Two Treatment Sessions. Sleep Breath. 2000;4(4):155-162.

Stuck BA, Kopke J, Maurer JT, Verse T, Eckert A, Bran G, Duber C, Hormann K, Lesion formation in radiofrequency surgery of the tongue base. Laryngoscope 2003;113(9):1572-6.

Stuck BA, Starzak K, Verse, T, Hormann, K, Maurer JT, Complications of temperature controlled radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction for sleep-disordered breathing. Acta Otolaryngol 2003;123:532-5.

Stuck BA, Starzak K, Hein G, Verse T, Hoermann K, Maurer JT. Combined radiofrequency surgery on tongue base and soft palate in obstructive sleep apnea. Otol H&N Surg 2003;129(2):200.

Troell RJ, Radiofrequency techniques in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing, Otol Clin N Am 2003;36:473-493.

Woodson BT, Steward DL, Weaver EM, Javaheri S, A randomized trial of temperature controlled radiofrequency, continuous positive airway pressure, and placebo for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otol H&N Surg 2003;128(6):848-61.

Woodson BT, Nelson L, Mickelson SA, Huntley T, Sher A. A multi-institutional study of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction for OSAS.  Otol H&N Surg. 2001;125(4):303-311.

 

13-15. Tongue base resection (midline glossectomy/lingualplasty, lingual tonsillectomy, robotic base of tongue reduction)

Andsberg U, Jessen M. Eight years of follow-up–uvulopalatopharyngoplasty combined with midline glossectomy as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2000;543:175-8.

Chabolle F, Wagner I, Blumen MB, et al.  Tongue base reduction with hyoepiglottoplasty: A treatment for severe obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 1999;109:1273-80.

Chiffer RC, Schwab RJ, Keenan BT, Borek RC, Thaler ER. Volumetric MRI analysis pre- and post-Transoral robotic surgery for obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 2015 Aug;125(8):1988-95. doi: 10.1002/lary.25270. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Cho HJ, Park DY, Min HJ, Chung HJ, Lee JG, Kim CH. Endoscope-guided coblator tongue base resection using an endoscope-holding system for obstructive sleep apnea. Head Neck. 2015 Nov 11. doi: 10.1002/hed.24252. [Epub ahead of print]

Crawford JA, Montevecchi F, Vicini C, Magnuson JS.  Transoral robotic sleep surgery: the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2014 Jun;47(3):397-406. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2014.03.004. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Eskiizmir G.  Lingual tonsillectomy for the management of persistent obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Feb;142(2):301. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2009.11.021.

Friedman M, Soans R, Gurpinar B, et al.  Evaluation of submucosal minimally invasive lingual excision technique for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.  Otolarynogol Head Neck Surg.  2008;139:378-384.

Friedman M, Hamilton C, Samuelson CG, Kelley K, Taylor D, Pearson-Chauhan K, Maley A, Taylor R, Venkatesan TK.  Transoral robotic glossectomy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 May;146(5):854-62. doi: 10.1177/0194599811434262. Epub 2012 Jan 13.

Fujita S, Woodson BT, Clark JL, Wittig R. Laser midline glossectomy as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 1991 Aug;101(8):805-9.

Hoff PT, Glazer TA, Spector ME. Body mass index predicts success in patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery for obstructive sleep apnea. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2014;76(5):266-72. doi: 10.1159/000368415. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Hou J, Yan J, Wang B, Zhu K, Sheng Y, Zheng G, Kang Q. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with combined uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and midline glossectomy: outcomes from a 5-year study. Respir Care. 2012 Dec;57(12):2104-10. doi: 10.4187/respcare.01695.

Hsieh TH, Fang TJ, Li HY, Lee SW. Simultaneous midline laser glossectomy with palatopharyngeal surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.  Int J Clin Pract. 2005 Apr;59(4):501-3.

Kang QQ, Zheng GX, Hou J, Liu HQ. Long term follow up of midline partial glossectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for treating obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.   Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010 May;45(5):377-81.

Kezirian EJ, Goldberg AN. Hypopharyngeal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea: an evidence-based medicine review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(2):206-13

Lee JM, Weinstein GS, O’Malley BW Jr, Thaler ER.  Transoral robot-assisted lingual tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea.  Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2012 Oct;121(10):635-9.

Li HY, Wang PC, Hsu CY, Chen NH, Lee LA, Fang TJ. Same-stage palatopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal surgery for severe obstructive sleep apnea. Acta Otolaryngol. 2004 Sep;124(7):820-6.

Lin HS, Rowley JA, Folbe AJ, Yoo GH, Badr MS, Chen W.  Transoral robotic surgery for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: factors predicting surgical response.  Laryngoscope. 2015 Apr;125(4):1013-20. doi: 10.1002/lary.24970. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Lin HS, Rowley JA, Badr MS, Folbe AJ, Yoo GH, Victor L, Mathog RH, Chen W.  Transoral robotic surgery for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Laryngoscope. 2013 Jul;123(7):1811-6. doi: 10.1002/lary.23913. Epub 2013 Apr 2.

MacKay SG, Jefferson N, Grundy L, Lewis R.  Coblation-assisted Lewis and MacKay operation (CobLAMO): new technique for tongue reduction in sleep apnoea surgery. J Laryngol Otol. 2013 Dec;127(12):1222-5. doi: 10.1017/S0022215113002971. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

MacKay SG, Carney AS, Woods C, Antic N, McEvoy RD, Chia M, Sands T, Jones A, Hobson J, Robinson S.  Modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and coblation channeling of the tongue for obstructivesleep apnea: a multi-centre Australian trial.  J Clin Sleep Med. 2013 Feb 1;9(2):117-24. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.2402.

Maturo SC, Hartnick CJ.  Pediatric lingual tonsillectomy. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;73:109-11. doi: 10.1159/000334459. Epub 2012 Mar 29

Maturo SC, Mair EA. Submucosal minimally invasive lingual excision: An effective novel surgery for pediatric tongue base reduction. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol  2006;115:624-30.

Mickelson SA, Rosenthal L. Midline glossectomy and epiglottidectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Laryngoscope. 1997 May;107(5):614-9.

Muderris T, Sevil E, Bercin S, Gul F, Kiris M.  Transoral robotic lingual tonsillectomy in adults: preliminary results.  Acta Otolaryngol. 2015 Jan;135(1):64-9. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2014.952336. Epub 2014 Oct 30

Murphey AW, Kandl JA, Nguyen SA, Weber AC, Gillespie MB. The effect of glossectomy for obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Sep;153(3):334-42. doi: 10.1177/0194599815594347. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Robinson S. Lewis R, Norton A, et al.  Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency submucosal tongue-base excision for sleep apnea: a preliminary report.  Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci.  2003;28:341-5.

Robinson S: chapter 41: Minimally invasive submucosal glossectomy. In Friedman M (ed): Sleep Apnea and Snoring: Surgical and Non-Surgical Therapy (ed). Philadelphia, PA, Saunders/Elsevier, 2009, pp248-57.

Robinson S: chapter 47: External submucosal glossectomy. In Friedman M (ed): Sleep Apnea and Snoring: Surgical and Non-Surgical Therapy (ed). Philadelphia, PA, Saunders/Elsevier, 2009, pp292-300.

Sher AE, Schechtman KB, Piccirillo JF. The efficacy of surgical modifications of the upper airway in adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep. 1996 Feb;19(2):156-77.

Spector ME, Glazer TA, Hoff PT. Addressing the Retrolingual Space in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Outcomes Stratified by Friedman Stage in Patients Undergoing Transoral Robotic Surgery. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2015 Nov 6;78(1):1-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Suh GD.  Evaluation of open midline glossectomy in the multilevel surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Jan;148(1):166-71. doi: 10.1177/0194599812464331. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Suzuki K, Kawakatsu K, Hattori C, Hattori H, Nishimura Y, Yonekura A, Yagisawa M, Nishimura T.  Application of lingual tonsillectomy to sleep apnea syndrome involving lingual tonsils. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2003;(550):65-71.

Thaler ER, Rassekh CH, Lee JM, Weinstein GS, O’Malley BW Jr. Outcomes for multilevel surgery for sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea, transoral robotic surgery, and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Laryngoscope. 2015 Jul 7. doi: 10.1002/lary.25353. [Epub ahead of print]

Thottam PJ, Govil N, Duvvuri U, Mehta D. Transoral robotic surgery for sleep apnea in children: Is it effective? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015 Oct 17. pii: S0165-5876(15)00517-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.10.010. [Epub ahead of print]

Toh ST, Han HJ, Tay HN, Kiong KL.  Transoral robotic surgery for obstructive sleep apnea in Asian patients: a Singapore sleepcentre experience.  JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Jul;140(7):624-9. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2014.926.

Vicini C, Montevecchi F, Campanini A, Dallan I, Hoff PT, Spector ME, Thaler E, Ahn J, Baptista P, Remacle M, Lawson G, Benazzo M, Canzi P.  Clinical outcomes and complications associated with TORS for OSAHS: a benchmark for evaluating an emerging surgical technology in a targeted application for benign disease.  ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2014;76(2):63-9. doi: 10.1159/000360768. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Vicini C, Montevecchi F, Pang K, Bahgat A, Dallan I, Frassineti S, Campanini A.  Combined transoral robotic tongue base surgery and palate surgery in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty versus uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.  Head Neck. 2014 Jan;36(1):77-83. doi: 10.1002/hed.23271. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Woodson BT, Fujita S. Clinical experience with lingualplasty as part of the treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992 Jul;107(1):40-8.

Yonekura A, Kawakatsu K, Suzuki K, Nishimura T.  Laser midline glossectomy and lingual tonsillectomy as treatments for sleep apnea syndrome.  Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2003;(550):56-8.

Verse T, Wenzel S, Brus J.  Multi-level surgery for obstructive sleep apnea. Lingual tonsillectomy vs. hyoid suspension in combination with radiofrequency of the tongue base.  Sleep Breath. 2015 Sep 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Vicini C, Dallan I, Canzi P, Frassineti S, Nacci A, Seccia V, Panicucci E, Grazia La Pietra M, Montevecchi F, Tschabitscher M.  Transoral robotic surgery of the tongue base in obstructive sleep Apnea-Hypopnea syndrome: anatomic considerations and clinical experience.  Head Neck. 2012 Jan;34(1):15-22. doi: 10.1002/hed.21691. Epub 2011 Mar 11.

Vicini C, Dallan I, Canzi P, Frassineti S, La Pietra MG, Montevecchi F.  Transoral robotic tongue base resection in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome: a preliminary report.  ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2010;72(1):22-7. doi: 10.1159/000284352. Epub 2010 Feb 18.

 

16.  Epiglottoplasty (partial epiglottectomy)

Cassano M.  Endoscopic Coblator-assisted epiglottoplasty in “obstructive sleep apnea syndrome” patients.  Clin Otolaryngol. 2015 Nov 19. doi: 10.1111/coa.12536. [Epub ahead of print]

Catalfumo FJ, Golz A, Westerman ST, Gilbert LM, Joachims HZ, Goldenberg D.  The epiglottis and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. J Laryngol Otol. 1998 Oct;112(10):940-3.

Golz A, Goldenberg D, Westerman ST, Catalfumo FJ, Netzer A, Westerman LM, Joachims HZ.  Laser partial epiglottidectomy as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and laryngomalacia.  Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2000 Dec;109(12 Pt 1):1140-5.

Mickelson SA, Rosenthal L. Midline glossectomy and epiglottidectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Laryngoscope. 1997 May;107(5):614-9.

Oluwasanmi AF, Mal RK.  Diathermy epiglottectomy: endoscopic technique.   J Laryngol Otol. 2001 Apr;115(4):289-92.

Oomen KP, Modi VK.  Epiglottopexy with and without lingual tonsillectomy. Laryngoscope. 2014 Apr;124(4):1019-22. doi: 10.1002/lary.24279. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Toh ST, Han HJ, Tay HN, Kiong KL.  Transoral robotic surgery for obstructive sleep apnea in Asian patients: a Singapore sleep centre experience.  JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Jul;140(7):624-9. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2014.926.

Vicini C, Frassineti S, La Pietra MG, De Vito A, Dallan I, Canzi P.  Tongue Base Reduction with Thyro-Hyoido-Pexy (TBRTHP) vs. Tongue Base Reduction with Hyo-Epiglottoplasty (TBRHE) in mild-severe OSAHS adult treatment. Preliminary findings from a prospective randomised trial.  Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2010 Jun;30(3):144-8.

 

17.  Cranial nerve (hypoglossal nerve) stimulation

Certal VF, Zaghi S, Riaz M, Vieira AS, Pinheiro CT, Kushida C, Capasso R, Camacho M. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Laryngoscope. 2014 Nov 12.doi: 10.1002/lary.25032.

Decker MJ, Haaga J, Arnold JL, Atzberger D, Strohl KP.  Functional electrical stimulation and respiration during sleep.J Appl Physiol. 1993 Sep;75(3):1053-61.

Dedhia RC, Strollo PJ Jr, Soose RJ.  Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Past, Present, and Future. Sleep. 2014 Nov 20.pii: sp-00495-14. [Epub ahead of print]

Dotan Y, Golibroda T, Oliven R, Netzer A, Gaitini L, Toubi A, Oliven A. Parameters affecting pharyngeal response to genioglossus stimulation in sleep apnoea. EurRespir J. 2011 Aug;38(2):338-47. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00125810. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Eastwood PR, Barnes M, Walsh JH, Maddison KJ, Hee G, Schwartz AR, Smith PL, Malhotra A, McEvoy RD, Wheatley JR, O’Donoghue FJ, Rochford PD,Churchward T, Campbell MC, Palme CE, Robinson S, Goding GS, Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Catcheside PG, Tyler L, Antic NA, Worsnop CJ, Kezirian EJ, Hillman DR.  Treating obstructive sleep apnea with hypoglossal nerve stimulation.Sleep. 2011 Nov 1;34(11):1479-86. doi:0.5665/sleep.1380.

Eastwood PR, Malhotra A, Palmer LJ, Kezirian EJ, Horner RL, Ip MS, Thurnheer R, Antic NA, Hillman DR. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: From pathogenesis to treatment: Current controversies and future directions.Respirology 15.4 May(2010): 587-95. 

Eastwood PR et al. Feasibility of Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea.Am J RespirCrit Care Med 181 (2010): A6767.

Edmonds LC, Daniels BK, Stanson AW, Sheedy PF 3rd, Shepard JW Jr.  The effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation during wakefulness and sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Oct;146(4):1030-6.

Eisele DW, Schwartz AR, Smith PL. Tongue neuromuscular and direct hypoglossal nerve stimulation for OSA. OtolaryngolClin N Am 2003:36(3): 501-10.

Eisele DW, Smith PL, Alam DS, Schwartz AR. Direct hypoglossal nerve stimulation in obstructive sleep apnea. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Jan;123(1):57-61.

Eisele DW, Schwartz AR, Hari A, Thut DC, Smith PL. The effects of selective nerve stimulation on upper airway airflow mechanics.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995 Dec;121(12):1361-4.

Fairbanks DW, Fairbanks DN. Neurostimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: investigations. Ear Nose Throat J. 1993 Jan;72(1):52-4, 57.

Goding GS Jr, Tesfayesus W, Kezirian EJ. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation and airway changes under fluoroscopy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 Jun;146(6):1017-22. doi: 10.1177/0194599812436472. Epub 2012 Feb 3.

Guilleminault C, Powell N, Bowman B, Stoohs R.  The effect of electrical stimulation on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.Chest. 1995 Jan;107(1):67-73.

Hida W, Okabe S, Miki H, Kikuchi Y, Kurosawa H, Takishima T, Shirato K. Submental stimulation and supraglottic resistance during mouth breathing.Respir Physiol. 1995 Jul;101(1):79-85.

Hida W, Okabe S, Miki H, Kikuchi Y, Taguchi O, Takishima T, Shirato K. Effects of submental stimulation for several consecutive nights in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.Thorax. 1994 May;49(5):446-52.

Huang J, Sahin M, Noormahammad C, Durand DM. Activation patterns of the tongue muscles with selective stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004;6:4275-8.

Huang J, Sahin M, Durand DM.  Dilation of the oropharynx via selective stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve.J Neural Eng. 2005 Dec;2(4):73-80. Epub 2005 Aug 15.

Ilomäki J, Baer GA, Karhuketo T, Talonen P, Puhakka H. Pharyngeal patency caused by stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve in anaesthesia-relaxed patients. ActaOtolaryngol Suppl. 1997;529:210-1.

Kezirian EJ, Boudewyns A, Eisele DW, Schwartz AR, Smith PL, Van de Heyning PH, De Backer WA. Electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. J Sleep Med Rev. 2010 Oct;14(5):299-305. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.10.009. Epub 2010 Jan 29.

Kezirian EJ, Goding GS Jr, Malhotra A, O’Donoghue FJ, Zammit G, Wheatley JR, Catcheside PG, Smith PL, Schwartz AR, Walsh JH, Maddison KJ,Claman DM, Huntley T, Park SY, Campbell MC, Palme CE, Iber C, Eastwood PR, Hillman DR, Barnes M. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation improves obstructive sleep apnea: 12-month outcomes.J Sleep Res 23.1 Feb(2014): 77-83.

Lianggang Hu, Xiaomei Xu, Yongsheng Gong, Xiaofang Fan, Liangxing Wang, Jianhua Zhang, and Yanjun Zeng.Percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 55.1 Jan (2008): 181.

Malhotra A et al. Hypoglossal-nerve stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl  J Med 370.2 Jan 9(2014): 170-171. 

Mann EA, Burnett T, Cornell S, and Ludlow CL.The effect of neuromuscular stimulation of the genioglossus on the hypopharyngeal airway.Laryngoscope 112.2 Feb (2002): 351-6.

McWhorter AJ, Rowley JA, Eisele DW, Smith PL, and Schwartz AR. The effect of tensor velipalatini stimulation on upper airway patency.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125.9 Sep (1999): 937-40.

Miki H, Hida W, Chonan T, Kikuchi Y, Takishima T. Effects of submental electrical stimulation during sleep on upper airway patency in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Nov;140(5):1285-9.

Mwenge GB, Rombaux P, Dury M, Lengelé B, and Rodenstein D. Targeted hypoglossal neurostimulation for obstructive sleep apnoea: a 1-year pilot study.EurRespir J. 41.2 Feb (2013): 360-7.

Oliven A, O’Hearn DJ, Boudewyns A, Odeh M, De Backer W, van de Heyning P, Smith PL, Eisele DW, Allan L, Schneider H, Testerman R, and Schwartz AR. Upper airway response to electrical stimulation of the genioglossus in obstructive sleep apnea. J ApplPhysiol 95 (2003): 2023–9.

Oliven A, Odeh M, Geitini L, Oliven R, Steinfeld U, Schwartz AR, and Tov N. Effect of Coactivation of Tongue Protrusor and Retractor Muscles on Pharyngeal Lumen and Airflow in Sleep Apnea Patients. J ApplPhysiol 103.5 Nov (2007): 1662-8.

Oliven A, Tov N, Odeh M, Steinfeld U, Oliven R, Schwartz A, and Gaitini L. Electrical stimulation of the genioglossus to improve pharyngeal patency in obstructive sleep apnea: comparison of results obtained during sleep and anesthesia. Harefuah 148.5 May (2009): 315-9, 350, 349.

Oliven A, Tov N, Geitini L, Steinfeld U, Oliven R, Schwartz AR, Odeh M. Effect of genioglossus contraction on pharyngeal lumen and airflow in sleep apnoea patients. Eur Respir J. 2007 Oct;30(4):748-58. Epub 2007 Jun 13.

Oliven A. Treating obstructive sleep apnea with hypoglossal nerve stimulation. CurrOpinPulm Med. 2011 Nov;17(6):419-24. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e32834b7e65.

Oliven A, Schnall RP, Pillar G, Gavriely N, Odeh M. Sublingual electrical stimulation of the tongue during wakefulness and sleep. Respir Physiol. 2001 Sep;127(2-3):217-26.

Pietzsch JB, Liu S, Garner AM, Kezirian EJ, Strollo PJ.  Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness of Upper Airway Stimulation for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Model-Based Projection Based on the STAR Trial. Sleep. 2014 Oct 28.pii: sp-00324-14.

Rodenstein D, Rombaux P, Lengele B, Dury M, Mwenge GB.  Residual effect of THN hypoglossal stimulation in obstructive sleep apnea: a disease-modifying therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Jun 1;187(11):1276-8. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201211-2129LE.

Safiruddin F, Vanderveken OM, de Vries N, Maurer JT, Lee K, Ni Q, Strohl KP. Effect of upper-airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnoea on airway dimensions.EurRespir J. 2014 Sep 3. pii: erj00594-2014. [Epub ahead of print].PMID: 25186270

Schwartz AR, Smith PL, and Oliven A. Electrical Stimulation of the Hypoglossal Nerve: A Potential Therapy. J ApplPhysiol 116.3 Feb (2014): 337-44. 

Schwartz AR, Eisele DW, Hari A, Testerman R, Erickson D, and Smith PL. Electrical Stimulation of the Lingual Musculature in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.  J. Appl. Physiol 2 (1996): 643-652. 

Schwartz AR, Bennett ML, Smith PL, De Backer W, Hedner J, Boudewyns A, Van de Heyning P, Ejnell H, Hochban W, Knaack L, Podszus T, Penzel T, Peter JH, Goding GS, Erickson DJ, Testerman R, Ottenhoff F, and Eisele DW. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve in obstructive sleep apnea.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 127.10 (2001): 1216-23.

Schwartz AR, Barnes M, Hillman D, Malhotra A, Kezirian E, Smith PL, Hoegh T, Parrish D, Eastwood PR.  Acute upper airway responses to hypoglossal nerve stimulation during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb 15;185(4):420-6. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201109-1614OC. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

Schwartz AR. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation–optimizing its therapeutic potential in obstructive sleep apnea. J Neurol Sci. 2014 Nov 15;346(1-2):1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2014.08.022. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Smith PL, Eisele DW, Podszus T, Penzel T, Grote L, Peter JH, Schwartz AR. Electrical stimulation of upper airway musculature. Sleep. 1996 Dec;19(10 Suppl):S284-7.

Soose RJ, Woodson BT, Gillespie MB, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Steward DL, Strohl KP, Baskin JZ, Padhya TA, Badr MS, Lin HS, Vanderveken OM, Mickelson S, Chasens E, Strollo PJ Jr; STAR Trial Investigators. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Self-reported Outcomes at 24 Months.  J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 Jul 24. pii: jc-00477-14. [Epub ahead of print]

Strollo PJ Jr, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Froymovich O, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Gillespie MB, Woodson BT, Van de Heyning PH, Goetting MG, Vanderveken OM, Feldman N, Knaack L, Strohl KP; STAR Trial Group. Upper –airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med 370.2, Jan 9 2014: 139-49

Van de Heyning PH, Badr MS, Baskin JZ, Cramer Bornemann MA, De Backer WA, Dotan Y, Hohenhorst W, Knaack L, Lin HS, Maurer JT, NetzerA, Odland RM, Oliven A, Strohl KP, Vanderveken OM, Verbraecken J, Woodson BT. Implanted upper airway stimulation device for obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 2012 Jul;122(7):1626-33. doi: 10.1002/lary.23301. Epub 2012 May 1.

Woodson BT, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Steward DL, Baskin JZ, Padhya TA, Lin HS, Mickelson S, Badr SM, Strohl KP, Strollo PJ Jr; on behalf of STAR Trial Investigators.  Randomized Controlled Withdrawal Study of Upper Airway Stimulation on OSA: Short and Long-term Effect.Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Nov, 151(5):880-7. doi: 10.1177/019459981454445. PMID:25205641

Woodson BT, Soose RJ, Gillespie MB, Strohl KP, Maurer JT, De Vries N, Steward DL, Baskin JZ, Badr MS, Lin HS, Padhya TA, Mickelson SA, Anderson WM, Vanderveken OM, Strollo Je PJ. Three Year Outcomes of Cranial Nerve Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The STAR Trial.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 154(1): 181-8.

Zaidi FN, Meadows P, Jacobowitz O, and Davidson TM.Tongue anatomy and physiology, the scientific basis for a novel targeted neurostimulation system designed for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.Neuromodulation 16.4 Jul-Aug (2013): 376-86.

 

18.  Tracheotomy

Bishop JB, Bostwick J, Nahal F.  Persistent tracheostomy stoma.  Am J Surg  1980;140:709-10.

Camacho M, Teixeira J, Abdullatif J, Acevedo JL, Certal V, Capasso R, Powell NB. Maxillomandibular advancement and tracheostomy for morbidly obese obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Apr;152(4):619-30. doi: 10.1177/0194599814568284. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

Conway WA, Victor LD, Magilligan DJ, Fujita S, Zorick FJ, Roth T. Adverse effects of tracheostomy for sleep apnea. JAMA 1981;246:347-50.

Eliachar I, Zohar S, Golz A, Joachima H, Goldsher M.  Permanent tracheostomy.  Head Neck Surg 1984;7:99-103.

Fee WE, Ward PH.  Permanent tracheostomy.  Ann Otol 1977;86:635-8.

Guilleminault C, Simmons FB, Motta J, Cummiskey J, Rosekind M, Schroeder JS, Dement WC.  Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and tracheostomy. Long-term follow-up experience. Arch Int Med.  1981;141:985-988.

Hickey SA, Ford GR, Evans JNG, Patrick JA, Spencer GT.  Tracheostomy closure in restrictive respiratory insufficiency.  J Laryng Otol 1990;104:883-6.

Mickelson SA, Rosenthal L.  Closure of Permanent Tracheostomy in Sleep Apnea Patients: A Comparison of Two Techniques. Otol Head and Neck Surg 1997;116(1):36-40.

Motta J, Guilleminault C, Schroeder JS, Dement WC.  Tracheostomy and hemodynamic changes in sleep-induced apnea.  Ann Int Med.1978;89:454-458.

Penta AO, Mayer E.  Permanent tracheostomy in the treatment of pulmonary insufficiency. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1960;69:1157-69.

Powell NB, Riley RW, Guilleminault C, Murcia GN.  Obstructive sleep apnea, continuous positive airway pressure, and surgery.  Oto H&N Surg  1988;99(4):362-369.

Sahni R, Blakley B, Maisel RH.  Flap tracheostomy in sleep apnea patients.  Laryngoscope 1985;95:221-3.

Simmons FB.  Guilleminault C, Dement WC, et al.  Surgical management of airway obstructions during sleep.  Laryngoscope 1976;86:326-338.